At Face Value
This picture visually represents the mindset with which Joseph Stalin used to shape Russia in the 1930’s. The 1930’s were a busy time with mass construction in Moscow and the introduction of the second 5 year plan. Stalin signed off on an audacious plan to completely renovate Moscow into a modern city, which exemplified socialist values. This sentiment is echoed in the following quote from the New York Times on 11 July 1935, “In the words of tonight’s decree. “the construction and architectural design of the capital of the U.S.S.R. must perfectly reflect the grandeur and the beauty of the Socialist epoch.”” Below is a picture of the city plans.
The following quote from Lewis Siegelbaum‘s subject essay in 17 moments describes Stalin’s plans.
“Four years in the making, the plan called for the expansion of the city’s area from 285 to 600 square kilometers that would take in mostly farmland to the south and west beyond the Lenin (a.k.a. Sparrow) Hills. It involved sixteen major highway projects, the construction of “several monumental buildings of state-wide significance,” and fifteen million square meters of new housing to accommodate a total population of approximately five million. Surrounding the city would be a green belt up to a width of ten kilometers.”
Stalin’s True Intention
Joseph Stalin used the reconstruction of Moscow and the second five-year plan as a way to further solidify his own power and establish the party hierarchy. The reconstruction of Moscow represented a turn from revolutionary soviet ideals towards glorification of Soviet Russia. This quote from the Freeze text further explains this transition, “Corresponding to a shift in investment priorities, the heightened cultural significance of the capital signaled a new hierarchy of values, by which society’s attention shifted from the many to the one outstanding representative” (Freeze pg 361) Stalin Chose to rebuild Moscow, making it the epicenter of all Russian transportation, to visually demonstrate that all decisions, authority, and glory came down from the capital.
Stalin truly wanted to create a fourth Rome. He used the rhetoric that socialism had finally been achieved as spring-board to motivate Russian citizens to strive to bring glory to Moscow. An interesting quote from Freeze eloquently sums up this transition ” If previously life’s satisfactions were derived from the knowledge that one’s work was contributing to the building of socialism, now the formula was reversed: the achievement of socialism, officially proclaimed in the 1936 constitution, was responsible for life’s joyfulness which in turn made work go well.” (Freeze pg 362)
Stalin’s true intention was convincing the Russian people that he and the Soviet Party were the cause of their success and happiness. His actions, during the 1930’s, demonstrate that he was stepping more and more in the direction of dictator and distancing himself from the original revolutionary ideals.
City Plans- See hyperlink
Moscow the Fourth Rome – See hyperlink
All other sources are cited in the text